A formal fallacy is an error in logic that can be seen in the arguments form all formal fallacies are specific types of non sequiturs appeal to probability a statement that takes something for granted because it would probably be the case or might be the case argument from fallacy also known as the fallacy fallacy assumption that if an argument for some conclusion is . Cum hoc ergo propter hoc taxonomy logical fallacy informal fallacy non causa pro causa cum hoc ergo propter hoc 1 sibling fallacy post hoc ergo propter hoc quote near perfect correlations exist between the death rate in hyderabad india from 1911 to 1919 and variations in the membership of the international association of machinists during the same period. Sources t edward damer attacking faulty reasoning a practical guide to fallacy free arguments third edition wadsworth 1995 pp 44 56 david hackett fischer historians fallacies toward a logic of historical thought harper torchbooks 1970 p 304. A way to teach students how to develop historical questions this is the beginning of a multi step research paper process that encourages sophisticated historical thinking
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